Case Study: GIARDIASIS by Dr. Ammarah Shah

Client name: Max

Breed: Poodle

Colour: Biscuit

Sex: Male

Age: 4 months


  • Max was 8 weeks old when he came in for a general check up
  • He had all his vaccines, including kennel cough and his first shot of DHPPiL
  • His appetite has been low since he was brought home.
  • Parent showed a picture of Max’s stools which were not formed (solid) , had mucus and blood
  • The puppy had passed loose stools three times that day
  • Puppy called for checkup


  • On physical examination Max was bright, alert and reactive
  • Temperature: Normal
  • Weight: 0.90kgs
  • On Auscultation no abnormalities were detected in the heart and lungs
  • On palpation lymph nodes were normal
  • No pain on abdominal palpation but gas was felt and observed
  • While taking temperature the stool was observed around the anal area
  • Parvo Virus and Giardia test were suggested to the pet parent


  • IDEXX Snap Giardia test :Test conducted on Max the poodle with a POSITIVE (+) result
  • IDEXX Snap Canine Parvo Virus test : Test conducted on Max the poodle with a NEGATIVE (-) result


  • Antibiotic administered : Metronidazole was given for seven (7) days based on Max’s weight
  • Pro-biotic administered: Prokolin was given for 7 days
  • Prescribed food recommended: Trovet Gastro Intestenal wet food was advised to be added to the existing food to aid digestion
  • Anal area was shaved. Hexiscrub was given to clean after he passes stool


  • As Giardia is a zoonotic disease the owner was asked to use gloves while cleaning up after Max passes stool
  • Since Max was not toilet trained, he was advised to do his business on puppy pads, first step in getting him potty trained
  • The pet parent was advised not to take Max outside for walks as his booster vaccinations were not yet completed
  • A House disinfectant (Safe4) was prescribed to clean the areas Max was in contact with
  • The parent was asked to come for a follow up in 7 days.


  • Upon examination Max was bright, alert and reactive
  • Stools were solid and no blood was seen
  • Upon conversing witht he pet parent, they stated Max is more active and eating well now
  • Idexx Giardia test was repeated: Test conducted on Max the poodle with a NEGATIVE (-) result
  • Pet parent was advised to continue with the Trovet Gastro Intestinal food and pro-biotics to strengthen the normal intestinal micro-flora
  • Multi vitamins were added to the diet






KitKAt Bladder Case study: Dr Shaurat

Client name: Kitkat

Breed: British Shorthair

Colour: Blue

Sex: M

Age: 4 years



Kitkat was 4 years old when he came to the clinic with a complain of vomiting three (3) times

His parent stated that Kitkat had not passed urine since two(2) days

Kitkat was staying at a friends place while his fur parent was out of town.

Kitkat had another guest cat staying with him that dint like him around, cat showing clear signs of stress



On physical examination Kitkat showed pain on palpation of the abdomen

Urinary bladder was full, distended and Kitkat felt pain on palpation

Kitkat was immediately administered fluids/electrolytes as he was dehydrated and lethargic

Completed blood Count (CBC) & General Health Profile test were suggested



IDEXX CBC & General Health Profile was conducted, leading to the Creatinine levels being very high ,levels above 130

Ultrasound was done and the urinary bladder was distended with sludge

Furthermore free fluid was seen around the urinary bladder

Leak suspected in the abdomen

Electro Cardio Gram (ECG) was also done.

HYPERKALEMIA was detected due to blockage in the urethra and leak in the abdomen


Since Kitkats Potassium (K) levels were high, he was administered Calcium gluconate inj intravenous

Insulin levels were maintained

Dextrose was administered, ECG was monitored

Kitkat was sedated and then a urinary catheter was placed.

The tom cat catheter was placed in Kitkats urethrea with great difficulty as there was a mucus plug also seen

The urine collected was dark red showed increase blood, protein and glucose.

For maintaince Inj amoxicillin and ringer lactate was administered

Kitkat was kept in the hospital for 1 week and was monitored regularly.

Follow up electrolytes were administered

Potassium levels dropped down to 4.5 levels

Urinary catheter replaced to avoid infection

Regular checks were conducted on Kitkats progress

Fluid was given according to his weight

He was also force fed Trovet recovery food

Kitkat was discharges a week after hospitalization and sent home


Kitkat’s furparent was advised to come in for regular check up every 3 month to check kidney functions.

Kitkat was advised to move back to his original house being the only cat

A water fountain was suggested to increase the water intake of Kitkat

Cat comfort (pheromone) was also advised


Kitkat was called in after two (2) days

Ultrasound was conducted, no leak was seen

Creatinine was not stable and Kitkat was prescribed Trovet renal food

Zola Ear Infection Case study: Dr Maie


Zola , 3 years old spayed Female maltese came in to the clinic as she was scratching her ears .

Previously a month ago the Owner came in for kennel cough vaccination. On the Physical examination small amount of waxy discharge from the right ear was noticed owner advised to do ear cytology owner declined.

Physical examination

On examination Zola was Bright Active.


Weight: 5 Kg

Temperature: 38.5 C

Heart Rate: normal

Capillary Refill Time [In Sec.]: 1

Mucous Membrane: PINK

On examination it was noticed that right ear was erythematous, warm to the touch, and contained moderate ceremonious debris. A significant amount of crusting was also noted moreover Zola’s ear had a bad odor.

The above picture was taken. There was inflammation and dark discharge seen.

Therefore ear smear and ear cytology was suggested.

Diagnostics Test

Ear smear showed dark exudates with no mites.

Ear cytology was showed that

Bacteria cooci ++

yeast Malassezia pachydermatis +++

Neutrophils +++ (indicating acute inflammation)

Above picture shows: Ear cytology showed yeast +++ cocci++ and neutrophils++


Unilateral Otitis externa (right ear)


Ears were cleaned well using ear cleaners for dogs

Dexamethasone Inj was given

Fusidic Acid ointment twice a day to apply on the pinna was prescribed

Ear drop 5- 7 drops twice a day for 7 days

Cetrizine Tablet was prescribed for 5 days

Deworming and Bravecto was also given

  1. collar was suggested and nail was trimmed so she could not scratch her inflamed ear.


Follow up

After 7 days Zola came again for a follow up she was better and extremely bright she was playing with everyone in the clinic.

She was not scratching her ears. The ears had no discharge and the pinna was not inflamed.

On recheck of ear smear no mites seen.

Ears cytologhy show cocci – yeast – Neutrophils –





On follow up the above picture was taken. No inflammation no discharge seen.



Dino-Ear Mites Case Study


Dino the adorable Persian kitten had come in for his first check up to the clinic.

Dino was 7 weeks old male kitten. He was born at home and was adopted by his new parents.

Physical examination

On examination was bright alert & active.

Weight was 0.9g

On examination it was noticed that there was a dark black discharge in both the ears

When the owner was asked she said that she tried to clean the ears but the discharge kept reoccurring and also that Dino was scratching his ear a lot.

Therefore and otoscope examination and ear cytology was suggested.


On Otoscope examination with Firefly otoscope the creepy crawly mites were seen.

Large colony of ear mites in the Dinos ear

On ear smear it was confirmed that Otodectes mites were present. There was a large colony of mites noticed.

We now called him DINO-MITE!!

Other Routine test were also done as he was a young cat with no history of vaccination . FIP, FIV /Felv and FPV were all negative. Wood lamp examination was also negative.


Ears were cleaned and Ear drops were give 1 -2 drops twice a day for 7 days .

Dino was dewormed also and was advised to come for follow up on 7th day of medication and vaccination.

Follow up

On examination Dino was bright and more active and also gained 100g and now weighed a whopping 1000 gr

No discharge in the ears was noticed

Upon recheck examination with the otoscopic, no mites were seen.

Dino was vaccinated








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